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He believed that social exploitation and oppression of the less privileged people leads to poverty, overcrowding, unemployment, environmental degradation that in turn, causes over population. One cause of overpopulation is actually positive for Africa as a whole. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/01/the-children-s-continent Rapid population growth rates also have ramifications for political and social conflicts among different ethnic, religious, linguistic and social groups. Africa has the highest rate of population growth among major areas. As Africa faces the potential for a demographic dividend, certain facts about Africa’s population offer cause for both excitement and concern.. Now home to 1.2 billion (up from just 477 million in 1980), Africa is projected by the United Nations Population Division to see a slight acceleration of annual population growth in the immediate future. Population growth on the African continent is rapid, despite numerous prevention and education campaigns. Supporting women to achieve their fertility intentions can significantly reduce population growth. Overpopulation is an undesirable condition where the human number would exceed the carrying capacity of the Earth. These interventions also don’t deny individuals freedom of choice. While Africa may not be lacking land, its population is crowded into cities. By 2100, Africa will contribute 82% of total growth: 3.2 billion of the overall increase of 3.8 billion people. The population of sub-Saharan Africa is projected to double by 2050. Another ethical issue is around economics of incentives. Reading, West Berkshire, Exploring the psychology of veganism vs. non-veganism: Implications for climate change and the human-animal Relationship Rapid population growth helps overstrain educational systems and local economies and can be a challenge to any government. Of the 2.37 billion increase in population expected worldwide by 2050, Africa alone will contribute 54%. The UN report predicts that the number of people aged 60 and over will more than triple by … — Strong national family planning programmes, investments in contraceptive information and access. Around 80 percent of Africa’s massive population growth will occur in cities. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Using financial incentives and nudges to effect changes are not without concerns. The countries in Africa share many features like reliance on agriculture, experience to European colonialism, high rural population and absolute poverty. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Copyright © 2010–2020, The Conversation Trust (UK) Limited. This would be the case even without any change in fertility behaviours. The government, NGOs and the people of the society have to work together to solve the problem of overpopulation in our country. The large variations in population across countries are caused by factors such as levels of education, poverty, urbanization, access to health care including family planning methods and attitudes towards population growth. Africa Population Growth. Lack of awareness/ education. The Conversation UK receives funding from these organisations. High birth rate in an area contributes to high population growth. Discoveries and inventions in food and health sectors have saved lives. The population of sub-Sahara Africa has grown from 186 million to 856 million people from 1950-2010. Population growth rates continue to pose lingering challenges to development efforts on the continent. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, YorkTalks 2021 In both cases, the catalysts for improvements were government commitment and commensurate budget financing. The Arab Spring in North African cities, the xenophobia in South Africa, and the cases of kidnapping in major cities in Nigeria earlier this year are some of the results of population growth that has been met with lack of jobs. Population growth in sub-Saharan Africa owes primarily to better medical care, which has slashed infant and child mortality and raised average life expectancy from 50 to 61 since 2000. Exploring the psychology of veganism vs. non-veganism: Implications for climate change and the human-animal Relationship, Helping your child with contamination related concerns, family planning programme efforts and social settings, paying for performance to improve the delivery and uptake of family planning. The population of Africa is expected to roughly double by 2050. The extreme poverty in Africa has many reasons, some of which are closely linked. POVERTY IN AFRICA - CAUSES. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Last modified on Fri 6 Oct 2017 13.14 BST. This compounds population growth rates. At the extreme are coercive policies. This is a short paper which highlights and attempts to offer a thick description of the major causes of overpopulation in African states. Natural resources, and the related government spending they financed, generated just 32 percent of Africa’s GDP growth from 2000 through 2008.2 2.Resources contributed 24 percent o… Precipitous declines in fertility in Asia and Latin America, from five children per woman in the 1970s to around 2.5 today, led many to believe Africa would follow a similar course. This projectionis based on an assumption that Niger’s fertility will gradually fall to 2.5 children over the course of the century. Growing population causes of unemployment Asian Forum Newsl. Contextual information should be sought before implementing incentive-based – and potentially controversial – programmes. Major causes of poverty in Africa. According to Karl Marx, population growth is a symptom rather than the cause of poverty, resource depletion, pollution and other social ills. By the year 2050, annual increases will exceed 42 million people per year and total population will have doubled to 2.4 billion, according to the UN. Africa's rising population and youth unemployment challenge, The campaigners challenging misogyny and sexism in Brazil, Overpopulation, overconsumption – in pictures. Meanwhile, another key demographic variable – the number of children the average African woman is likely to have in her lifetime, or total fertility rate – remains elevated compared to global rates. What are the implications? The average woman in Africa today has about 4.7 children. In 2010, 90 percent of the continent’s population was living on only 21 percent of the land. The decline in fertility rates combined with increased life expectancy in most parts of the world means not only a slowing of population growth but also an older population. According to researchers, “currently, the developing world accounts for about 95% of the population growth with Africa as the world’s fastest growing continent” (Hartemink, 2007, p. 85). Religious propagation. That’s about 11 million people a year for the past 60 years or approximately 670 million people in 60 years. he last 100 years have seen an incredible increase in the planet’s population. The fact that high fertility behaviours are rooted in strongly held religious and cultural beliefs and narratives needs to be taken into account by those in authority. Clearly, human beings need to stop overpopulating the world. Many of the youth in these cities are plugged into social media and know what they are missing out on. Failure to do so results in per capita declines in living standards. World Population Prospects: 2019 Revision, ( 2 ) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, ( 3 ) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, ( 4 ) United Nations Statistical Division. These dynamics create the opposite of a virtuous circle. About one in four women on the continent have an unmet need for family planning. The tipping point was generally accepted to be the Industrial Revolution, but there are many smaller revolutions that contributed to population take-off which have brought the planet to its current dangerous overpopulation: revolutions that are medical, technological, agricultural, financial, transport and demographical in nature, among others. Food security. The dramatic growth in Africa is mainly because of the drop in infant mortality. These factors help to explain why, for example, Niger’s population is growing at 3% per annum while Botswana’s population is growing at 1% per annum. In central and western Africa, for example, it is almost three times the global average. By the year 2100, the country could have more than 209 million people and still be expanding rapidly. Population growth can account for a struggle to get jobs and can cause social and economic strain causing people to migrate to countries with better opportunities. But most of the attempts at (dis)incentivising fertility behaviours are more subtle. Genetically engineered drought resistant crops which will reduce/ eliminate starvation. Unbridled growth of population is certainly a problem that our country needs to overcome. By Wilson Chapman , Contributor July 10, … To get through difficult situations, the African countries have to recognize the negative effects of rapid population growth on the development of economy. Changing social settings can significantly improve the impact of making contraceptives more available in reducing population growth. To be sure, Africa has benefited from the surge in commodity prices over the past decade. This varies significantly from 2.5 in southern Africa to between 5.5 and 5.8 in central and western Africa. 943 Words 4 Pages. The impact of healthcare is a major positive. Ethics, for example, are a big issue and continue to be debated. Ageing population . Oil rose from less than $20 a barrel in 1999 to more than $145 in 2008. Today, Africa has one of the highest population growth rates in the world, placing the African population at a higher risk of food insecurity [7]. Other attempts, largely nudges, aim to influence fertility behaviour without forbidding any previously available courses of actions, or making alternatives appreciably more costly in terms of time, money, or social sanctions. Africa has a population density of only 33%, relative to 70% for Europe and 87% for Asia. This comes to 3.5 million more people per month, or 80 additional people per minute. He believed that social exploitation and oppression of the less privileged people leads to poverty, overcrowding, unemployment, environmental degradation that in turn, causes over population. Population growth could result as a consequence of immigration, lack of family planning, and more. The growth of population in Africa is a key factor that lies at the root of many population-related challenges. However, several factors prevent self-sufficiency and a victory in the fight against hunger in Africa: Population growth: In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people is growing … With little or no measures in place to address the issue, the 2.4 billion prediction for 2050 is entirely plausible. (1998), the high incidence of malaria in sub-Sahara n Africa reduces the annual grow th rate of the continent by 1.3% a year and er adication of malaria in the 1950s would have resulted into a Cultural influences. Discoveries and inventions in food and health sectors have saved lives. May 2013 ... the effect of population growth on per capita GDP growth is linear and negative. In the past, the death rate was high due to lack of food and poor health facilities. But in some instances, attempts have been made to induce changes in fertility behaviour through different incentives – and disincentives. 3. Lack of family planning. In Niger, where GDP per capita is less than $1 per day, the average number of children a woman is likely to have in her life is more than seven. — Population and Economic Growth in Africa. The population growth is due to. Strong national family planning programmes in various parts of the world jump-started a virtuous circle: fertility declines allowed more educational and other resources to be deployed per capita than otherwise would have been possible. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. And adolescent birth rates are very high. A few heroic efforts, such as Family Planning 2020, are attempting to stimulate family planning programmes across the continent, and there are some signs of success. They can include financial disincentives and incentives to promote family planning or paying for performance to improve the delivery and uptake of family planning. Dornsife Professor of Global Health, Drexel University, Researcher Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University. The fastest growing countries of Africa (in terms of population) are mostly in the "belt" for malaria (and other diseases of hot, humid tropical climates), and include Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, and others. It is predicted that by 2050 the world population is to rise from 7.2 billion to 9.7 billion. Causes of population growth include high birth rate, low infant mortality, increased food production and improvement of public health. Ways in which social settings can be changed include providing support for family planning as well as community-based distribution of contraceptive services. Africa's population growth jeopardizes efforts to fight poverty, while immigration is expected to fuel U.S. population growth. Secondly, the early onset of childbearing leads to shorter inter-generational gaps. Brand South Africa's research team has analysed the state of South Africa's major cities. Introduction Over the years there have been growing concerns of the students in minimizing the rising BSA population shifters. In some countries, such as Kenya, Malawi and Zambia, cash transfer programmes have been tried. The authors do not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and have disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. In 1955 infant mortality was 20% now it is down to 7.6% (By comparison, Australia sits at 0.3% and Germany at 0.3%) A lot of this is down to vaccinations, clean water projects, and access to antibiotics which save many lives. Fertility remains high and human suffering builds steam. From any big-picture perspective, these population dynamics will have an influence on global demography in the 21st century. License : CC BY-4.0 In each case, we will try to provide some indication of the degree of certainty and the limits to which these ideas can be applied. The role that an early start in childbearing plays in rapid population growth is generally ignored. Illiteracy 4. Thus, widespread poverty, low labour productivity, the growing demand for food and slow industrialization distort and degrade the international trade of African countries. Sub-Saharan Africa has millions of hectares of fertile soil. This is in addition to the massive rush to urbanization that has already occurred in Africa. If fertility does not fall at all – and it has not budged in the last 60 years – the country’s population projection for 2100 veers towards 960 million people. Isn’t it Europe that is overpopulated, rather than Africa? And most of these people are under the age of 40. In the past year the population of the African continent grew by 30 million. The main one is high fertility which is driven by multiple factors, including high desired family size, low levels of use of modern contraceptives, and high levels of adolescent childbearing. The total fertility rate of Africa is 88% higher than the world standard (2.5 children per woman globally, 4.7 children per woman in Africa). Some possible solutions. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. The continent of Africa, however, is not following this pattern. Africa's population is notably the fastest growing in the world. Derived from total population. Many areas of Australia and England, both fast-growing countries, are contending with overcrowded schools, congested highways and stratospheric housing costs. Take a large population like Nigeria. It also has indirect effects. Accordingly, the country’s current population of 20 million is projected to grow by 800,000 people over the next 12 months. Like other universities, FEU Diliman is experiencing a high number of BSA students’ shifters and low academic performance in accounting course. Another driver revolves around family planning. It’s therefore important not to impose interventions that force people into impossible situations, as was the case in India. A focus of the debate will be the role of behavioural nudges – interventions designed to change people’s behaviour – and incentives in achieving demographic transition in Africa. — However, Africa has a relatively high population growth rate; something in the range of 4.8% per annum in 2013, up from 3.4% in 2011, according to the International Planned Parenthood Federation. York, York, Helping your child with contamination related concerns Jan-Mar 1995;4. Easier access to health care which will reduce infant and maternal mortality. In a handful of countries, previous declines have stalled altogether and are reversing. Uneducated girls and women are less likely to overcome social barriers to contraceptive use, such as domineering paternalistic cultures or religious prohibition. Making family planning services available can stimulate use of such services even among disadvantaged, poor, illiterate and rural women. Any expert would find it hard to argue with the commonly held view that the population of Africa in 2016 and beyond is set for further increases. While it is true that the food insecurity problems in Africa are complex and will not all be solved overnight, there has been some progress made on this important issue. Causes of population growth include high birth rate, low infant mortality, increased food production and improvement of public health. The 12 million Africans born in 1955 could expect to live only until the age of 37. Governments also face ethical dilemmas because of the contradiction between ensuring protection of the rights of individuals to decide on the number of children to have, and protecting the welfare of the larger community and achieving national development goals that may require slower population growth rates. 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